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Sunday, 15 June 2008

How to develop a Network Security Policy

1.1 Introduction

The world of computers has changed dramatically over the past 25 years. Twenty-five years ago, most computers were centralised and managed in data centres. Computers were kept in locked rooms and links outside a site were unusual. Computer security threats were rare, and were basically concerned with insiders These threats were well understood and dealt with using standard techniques: computers behind locked doors and accounting for all resources. Twenty-five years later, many systems are connected to the Internet. The Internet is a huge network and has no boundaries. Businesses find an increasing need to connect to the internet to take advantage of the business opportunities.

The security framework for systems with internet connections is however very different. Information on the internet can be accessed from anywhere in the world in real time. While this is good for the spread of information, it has also allowed for the proliferation of ‘malicious information’. Hacker tools are now widely available on the internet. Some web sites even provides tutorials on how to hack into a system, giving details of the vulnerabilities of the different kinds of systems. It does not take an expert programmer to break into a system. Anyone with malicious intentions can search the internet for programs to break into a system which is not properly secured.

It is hence vital for businesses with connections to the internet to ensure that their networks are secure. This is important to minimise the risk of intrusions both from insiders and outsiders. Although a network cannot be 100% safe, a secure network will keep everyone but the most determined hacker out of the network. A network with a good accounting and auditing system will ensure that all activities are logged thereby enabling malicious activity to be detected.

1.2 Need for Network Security Policy

Before a network can be secured, a network security policy has to be established. A network security policy defines the organisation's expectations of proper computer and network use and the procedures to prevent and respond to security incidents. A network security policy is the foundation of security because it outlines what assets are worth protecting and what actions or inactions threaten the assets. The policy will weigh possible threats against the value of personal productivity and efficiency and identify the different corporate assets which need different levels of protection. Without a network security policy, a proper security framework cannot be established. Employees cannot refer to any established standards and security controls would be circumvented for the sake of increasing efficiency.

A network security policy should be communicated to everyone who uses the computer network, whether employee or contractor..

1.3 Risks of Network Connectivity

Before a network security policy can be established, a risk analysis has to be studied. Risk analysis is the process of identifying what you need to protect, what you need to protect it from, and how to protect it. It is the process of examining all of your risks, and ranking those risks by level of severity.

A good way of assessing the risks of network connectivity is to first evaluate the network to determine which assets are worth protecting and the extent to which these assets should be protected. In principle, the cost of protecting a particular asset should not be more than the asset itself. A detailed list of all assets, which include both tangible objects, such as servers and workstations, and intangible objects, such as software and data should be made. Directories that hold confidential or mission-critical files must be identified. After identifying the assets, a determination of how much it cost to replace each asset must be made to prioritise the list of assets.

Once the assets requiring protection are identified, it is necessary to identify the threats to these assets. The threats can then be examined to determine what potential for loss exists. Examples of threats might include:

i) Unauthorised access/use of resources (authentication)
ii) Denial of Service (availability)
iii) Leakage of information (confidentiality)
iv) Corruption/unauthorised change of data (integrity)
v) Natural disasters

A thorough risk assessment will be the most valuable tool in shaping a network security policy. The risk assessment indicates both the most valuable and the most vulnerable assets. A security policy can then be established to focus on security measures that can identify these assets.

1.4 Components of a Network Security Policy

Although network security policies are subjective and can be very different for different organisations, there are certain issues that are relevant in most policies. This section explains some of the common components of a network security policy.

Physical Security

Network security interacts with physical security because the size or shape of the network "machine" or entity can span a building, campus, country or the world due to interconnections and trust relationships. Without physical security, the other issues of network security like confidentiality, availability and integrity will be greatly threatened. The physical security section states how facilities and hardware should be protected. This section will also define which employees should be granted access to restricted areas such as server rooms and wiring closets.

Network Security

The network security section states how assets stored on the network will be protected. This section might include security measures regarding access controls, firewalls, network auditing, remote access, directory services, Internet services, and file system directory structures.

Access Control

Access control determines who has access to what. There must be a proper procedure to ensure that only the right people have access to the right information or services. Good access control includes managing remote access and enabling administrators to be efficient in their work. It should not be so complex that it becomes easy to commit errors.

Authentication

Authentication is how users tell the network who they are. The type of authentication used varies depending on from where users are authenticating. From their desk, a simple user id and password may be sufficient because of the accompanying physical security. When connecting from the Internet, a more secure 2-factor authentication (token-based authentication) may be necessary.

Encryption

Encryption can ensure data integrity or protect sensitive information sent over insecure lines. Such protection is usually essential for remote access to important assets or as an extra protection when using the organisation’s intranet.

Key Management

Keys are used to encrypt and decrypt data. A serious issue with encryption is the management of keys. A proper policy has to be established to address the following issues as these will affect the effectiveness of using encryption.

i) Key length – how long
ii) Key change – how often
iii) Key escrow – to have or not, if yes, how
iv) Key generation – who, how
v) Key distribution – who how

Compliance

The compliance section explains how enforcement of the network security policy will be done. It might also state the methods that will be used to investigate breaches of the policy. Penalties on violations of the policy can also be state here.

Auditing and Review

Once a security policy has been implemented, it must be checked to ensure that all components and employees are in compliance. Without sufficient auditing, an organisation may have no legal recourse if there is a security breach. Auditing can also identify problems before they turn into security breaches. The policies must also be reviewed regularly to ensure that they are still relevant.

Security Awareness

"Clueless users" are widely recognised as the most serious threat to network security. If employees do not understand the power and proper use of the network, they can unintentionally compromise security (or be duped into it). In particular, employees must manage passwords properly and be aware of "social engineering" attacks.

Incident Response & Disaster Contingency Plan

An organisation is most vulnerable when it detects an intrusion or when it is faced with a disaster. What happens in the next few minutes and hours can determine if billions of dollars in intellectual property is recoverable. The disaster contingency plan explains how an organisation will recover from any type of natural disaster or attack, including attacks from hackers and employees. For example, it might include security measures for backing up servers, detailing how often backups must be performed and how backups must be stored off-site. The disaster contingency plan might also list the members of an emergency response team that will handle a natural disaster or attack. In addition, the plan might include security measures for conducting drills to ensure that all users and the emergency response team know what to do when a disaster or attack occurs.

Acceptable Use Policy

The acceptable use policy section states how users will be allowed to use network resources. For example, it might describe the types of information that can be included in Internet e-mail messages and explain when e-mail messages must be encrypted. This section might also address issues such as whether or not users can play computer games or use resources such as e-mail and Internet access for personal use.

Software Security

The software security section explains how the organisation will use commercial and non-commercial software on servers, workstations, and the network. This section might also identify who is allowed to purchase and install software and the security measures for downloading software from the Internet.

1.5 Steps to developing a Network Security Policy

Objective

Before starting work on the policy, a clear idea of the objectives of the policy must be defined. This will ensure that the policy does not stray from its initial objective. The objective defines the approach to network security. A typical objective might be that information is an important asset and that the organisation will implement security measures to protect that asset.

Scope

The scope defines the assets that will be protected by the network security policy. Network security can cover a wide range of issues from physical security to personnel security to procedural security. A scope might define whether the policy addresses only network security or includes other areas of security. The scope also defines who must follow the network security policy. Does the policy pertain only to the employees? Or does the policy extend to contractors, customers, and vendors, who might be required to follow the policy if they connect their network to the organisation’s network?

Support from upper management

After defining the scope and objectives. Support should be obtained from the upper-level managers before actual work on developing the policy. Without the support of upper management, it will be very difficult to ensure compliance of a network security policy. If possible, the security committee should also include some upper-level managers

Reference of Other Policies

In order to get a feel of how a network security policy should look like. References to other policies should be made. This will also help in redefining the scope and objectives of the policy.

Risk Assessment

Before starting the actual writing of the policy, a thorough risk assessment must be done. An assessment of the risks will determine what are the issues that need to be addressed. The risk assessment report will be valuable tool in the shaping of the network security policy.

Determination of Components and Writing of Policy

The components of the Security Policy should be determined. These will be dependent on the risk assessment report. Not all components must be included. These will depend on the network structure, the location and structure of the organisation. The policy should aim to address all the risks stated in the risk assessment report. Where certain risks cannot be address, they should be noted.

Evaluation

After the policy is developed, an evaluation of the policy should be done to ascertained if the objectives of the policy has been achieved.. Some of the questions to be addressed might include:

i) Does your policy comply with law and with duties to third parties?
ii) Does your policy compromise the interest of your employees, your organisation or third parties?
iii) Is your policy practical, workable and likely to be enforced?
iv) Does your policy address all the different forms of communication and record keeping within your organisation?
v) Has your policy been properly presented and agreed to by all concerned parties?

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Thursday, 12 June 2008

CSMA/CD

Short for Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection, a set of rules determining how network devices respond when two devices attempt to use a data channel simultaneously (called a collision). Standard Ethernet networks use CSMA/CD to physically monitor the traffic on the line at participating stations. If no transmission is taking place at the time, the particular station can transmit. If two stations attempt to transmit simultaneously, this causes a collision, which is detected by all participating stations. After a random time interval, the stations that collided attempt to transmit again. If another collision occurs, the time intervals from which the random waiting time is selected are increased step by step. This is known as exponential back off.

CSMA/CD is a type of contention protocol. Networks using the CSMA/CD procedure are simple to implement but do not have deterministic transmission characteristics. The CSMA/CD method is internationally standardized in IEEE 802.3 and ISO 8802.3.

Ethernet

A local-area network (LAN) architecture developed by Xerox Corporation in cooperation with DEC and Intel in 1976. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology and supports data transfer rates of 10 Mbps. The Ethernet specification served as the basis for the IEEE 802.3 standard, which specifies the physical and lower software layers. Ethernet uses the CSMA/CD access method to handle simultaneous demands. It is one of the most widely implemented LAN standards.

A newer version of Ethernet, called 100Base-T (or Fast Ethernet), supports data transfer rates of 100 Mbps. And the newest version, Gigabit Ethernet supports data rates of 1 gigabit (1,000 megabits) per second.

What is network?

A group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are many types of computer networks, including:

· local-area networks (LANs) : The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building).

· wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.

· campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base.

· metropolitan-area networks MANs): A data network designed for a town or city.

· home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices.

In addition to these types, the following characteristics are also used to categorize different types of networks:

· topology : The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring.

· protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet. Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM token-ring network .

· architecture : Networks can be broadly classified as using either a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture.

Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes. Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called servers.

(v.) To connect two or more computers together with the ability to communicate with each other.

WAN

Is a shortcut for Wide-Area-Networks. A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs).

Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks, such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet.

Wednesday, 11 June 2008

Topology

The shape of a local-area network (LAN) or other communications system. Topologies are either physical or logical.

There are four principal topologies used in LANs.

· bus topology: All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. Ethernet systems use a bus topology.

· ring topology : All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install, but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances.

· star topology: All devices are connected to a central hub. Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage, but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the hub.

· tree topology: A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable.

These topologies can also be mixed. For example, a bus-star network consists of a high-bandwidth bus, called the backbone, which connects a collections of slower-bandwidth star segments.

local-area network

A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN).

Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers. Each node (individual computer ) in a LAN has its own CPU with which it executes programs, but it also is able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN. This means that many users can share expensive devices, such as laser printers, as well as data. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending e-mail or engaging in chat sessions.

There are many different types of LANs Ethernets being the most common for PCs. Most Apple Macintosh networks are based on Apple's AppleTalk network system, which is built into Macintosh computers.

The following characteristics differentiate one LAN from another:

· topology : The geometric arrangement of devices on the network. For example, devices can be arranged in a ring or in a straight line.

· protocols : The rules and encoding specifications for sending data. The protocols also determine whether the network uses a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture.

· media : Devices can be connected by twisted-pair wire, coaxial cables, or fiber optic cables. Some networks do without connecting media altogether, communicating instead via radio waves.

LANs are capable of transmitting data at very fast rates, much faster than data can be transmitted over a telephone line; but the distances are limited, and there is also a limit on the number of computers that can be attached to a single LAN.

DoS attack

Short for denial-of-service attack, a type of attack on a network that is designed to bring the network to its knees by flooding it with useless traffic. Many DoS attacks, such as the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks, exploit limitations in the TCP/IP protocols. For all known DoS attacks, there are software fixes that system administrators can install to limit the damage caused by the attacks. But, like viruses, new DoS attacks are constantly being dreamed up by hackers.

Firewall

A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.

There are several types of firewall techniques:

· Packet filter: Looks at each packet entering or leaving the network and accepts or rejects it based on user-defined rules. Packet filtering is fairly effective and transparent to users, but it is difficult to configure. In addition, it is susceptible to IP spoofing.

· Application gateway: Applies security mechanisms to specific applications, such as FTP and Telnet servers. This is very effective, but can impose a performance degradation.

· Circuit-level gateway: Applies security mechanisms when a TCP or UDP connection is established. Once the connection has been made, packets can flow between the hosts without further checking.

· Proxy server: Intercepts all messages entering and leaving the network. The proxy server effectively hides the true network addresses.

In practice, many firewalls use two or more of these techniques in concert.

A firewall is considered a first line of defense in protecting private information. For greater security, data can be encrypted.

What is TPS?

(1) Short for transactions per second, a measurement used to determine how many transactions have been processed in one second in transaction-oriented systems.

(2) Short for Transaction Process System it is a type of information system (IS) that collects, stores, modifies and retrieves transaction of an organization. Here the word transaction is used to mean any event that generates or modifies data stored in the IS. For example batch processing is an example of TPS.

IS

Pronounced as separate letters, and short for Information Systems or Information Services. For many companies, IS is the name of the department responsible for computers, networking and data management. Other companies refer to the department as IT (Information Technology) and MIS (Management Information Services).

Information systems support different types of decisions at different levels of the organizational hierarchy. Major types of Information systems include structural databases and information management software that can include the following;

  • Transaction Process Systems (TPS)
  • Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS)
  • Management Information Systems (MIS)
  • Decision Support Systems (DSS)
  • Executive Support Systems (ESS)

What is antivirus program?

A utility that searches a hard disk for viruses and removes any that are found. Most antivirus programs include an auto-update feature that enables the program to download profiles of new viruses so that it can check for the new viruses as soon as they are discovered

Combating Viruses, Worms and Trojan Horses

The first steps to protecting your computer are to ensure your operating system (OS) is up-to-date. This is essential if you are running a Microsoft Windows OS. Secondly, you should have anti-virus software installed on your system and ensure you download updates frequently to ensure your software has the latest fixes for new viruses, worms, and Trojan horses. Additionally, you want to make sure your anti-virus program has the capability to scan e-mail and files as they are downloaded from the Internet. This will help prevent malicious programs from even reaching your computer. You should also install a firewall as well.
A firewall is a system that prevents unauthorized use and access to your computer. A firewall can be either hardware or software. Hardware firewalls provide a strong degree of protection from most forms of attack coming from the outside world and can be purchased as a stand-alone product or in broadband routers. Unfortunately, when battling viruses, worms and Trojans, a hardware firewall may be less effective than a software firewall, as it could possibly ignore embedded worms in out going e-mails and see this as regular network traffic. For individual home users, the most popular firewall choice is a software firewall. A good software firewall will protect your computer from outside attempts to control or gain access your computer, and usually provides additional protection against the most common Trojan programs or e-mail worms. The downside to software firewalls is that they will only protect the computer they are installed on, not a network.
It is important to remember that on its own a firewall is not going to rid you of your computer virus problems, but when used in conjunction with regular operating system updates and a good anti-virus scanning software, it will add some extra security and protection for your computer or network.

The Difference Between a Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse

The most common blunder people make when the topic of a computer virus arises is to refer to a worm or Trojan horse as a virus. While the words Trojan, worm and virus are often used interchangeably, they are not the same. Viruses, worms and Trojan Horses are all malicious programs that can cause damage to your computer, but there are differences among the three, and knowing those differences can help you to better protect your computer from their often damaging effects.
A computer virus attaches itself to a program or file so it can spread from one computer to another, leaving infections as it travels. Much like human viruses, computer viruses can range in severity: Some viruses cause only mildly annoying effects while others can damage your hardware, software or files. Almost all viruses are attached to an executable file, which means the virus may exist on your computer but it cannot infect your computer unless you run or open the malicious program. It is important to note that a virus cannot be spread without a human action, (such as running an infected program) to keep it going. People continue the spread of a computer virus, mostly unknowingly, by sharing infecting files or sending e-mails with viruses as attachments in the e-mail.
A worm is similar to a virus by its design, and is considered to be a sub-class of a virus. Worms spread from computer to computer, but unlike a virus, it has the capability to travel without any help from a person. A worm takes advantage of file or information transport features on your system, which allows it to travel unaided. The biggest danger with a worm is its capability to replicate itself on your system, so rather than your computer sending out a single worm, it could send out hundreds or thousands of copies of itself, creating a huge devastating effect. One example would be for a worm to send a copy of itself to everyone listed in your e-mail address book. Then, the worm replicates and sends itself out to everyone listed in each of the receiver's address book, and the manifest continues on down the line. Due to the copying nature of a worm and its capability to travel across networks the end result in most cases is that the worm consumes too much system memory (or network bandwidth), causing Web servers, network servers and individual computers to stop responding. In more recent worm attacks such as the much-talked-about .Blaster Worm., the worm has been designed to tunnel into your system and allow malicious users to control your computer remotely.

A Trojan Horse is full of as much trickery as the mythological Trojan Horse it was named after. The Trojan Horse, at first glance will appear to be useful software but will actually do damage once installed or run on your computer. Those on the receiving end of a Trojan Horse are usually tricked into opening them because they appear to be receiving legitimate software or files from a legitimate source. When a Trojan is activated on your computer, the results can vary. Some Trojans are designed to be more annoying than malicious (like changing your desktop, adding silly active desktop icons) or they can cause serious damage by deleting files and destroying information on your system. Trojans are also known to create a backdoor on your computer that gives malicious users access to your system, possibly allowing confidential or personal information to be compromised. Unlike viruses and worms, Trojans do not reproduce by infecting other files nor do they self-replicate.
Added into the mix, we also have what is called a blended threat. A blended threat is a sophisticated attack that bundles some of the worst aspects of viruses, worms, Trojan horses and malicious code into one threat. Blended threats use server and Internet vulnerabilities to initiate, transmit and spread an attack. This combination of method and techniques means blended threats can spread quickly and cause widespread damage. Characteristics of blended threats include: causes harm, propagates by multiple methods, attacks from multiple points and exploits vulnerabilities.
To be considered a blended thread, the attack would normally serve to transport multiple attacks in one payload. For example it wouldn't just launch a DoS attack — it would also install a backdoor and damage a local system in one shot. Additionally, blended threats are designed to use multiple modes of transport. For example, a worm may travel through e-mail, but a single blended threat could use multiple routes such as e-mail, IRC and file-sharing sharing networks. The actual attack itself is also not limited to a specific act. For example, rather than a specific attack on predetermined .exe files, a blended thread could modify exe files, HTML files and registry keys at the same time — basically it can cause damage within several areas of your network at one time.
Blended threats are considered to be the worst risk to security since the inception of viruses, as most blended threats require no human intervention to propagate.

What is Smoking?

Smoking refers to the inhalation and exhalation of fumes from burning tobacco in cigars, cigarettes and pipes. Historically, smoking as a practice, was followed by natives of the Western Hemisphere, in religious rituals and for medicinal purposes. It has a history starting from the late 1500s.

Explorers of the New World saw it fit to introduce tobacco into Europe, in-spite of the opposition from the then rulers. But the novelty and thrill factor won over many a new user. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, cigarettes were higher in demand than the cigars and pipes, which had been popular amongst smokers until then.

Health Effects of Smoking

Tobacco smoke contains nicotine - a poisonous alkaloid - and other harmful substances like carbon monoxide, acrolein, ammonia, prussic acid and a number of aldehydes and tars. Health reports giving definitive proof that cigarette smoking is a serious health hazard have been submitted from time to time by the Surgeon General’s Advisory Committee on Health, appointed smoking-pic.jpgby the U.S. Public Health Service. Findings include that a smoker has a significantly greater chance of contracting lung cancer than a nonsmoker, depending on factors such as number of cigarettes smoked daily, number of years the subject smoked and the time in the person’s life when he or she began smoking.

Additionally, the report also gave proof of smoking being a primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, heart disease, stroke and other cardiovascular diseases.

Smoking has proved to pose a threat to male potency. Pipe and cigar smokers are a comparatively fortunate lot as compared to cigarette smokers, if they do not inhale. They are not as prone to lung cancer as cigarette smokers. On the downside, the former set is just as likely to develop cancers of the mouth, larynx and esophagus. Groups of people indulging in snuff or chewing tobacco-a.k.a smokeless tobacco - also run a greater risk of developing cancer of the mouth.

Smoking Affects those Associated with Smokers too

Health groups are increasingly targeting smokers who inhale tobacco smoke for increasing the risk of heart disease and respiratory problems for them. These have resulted in dedicated movements for smokeless environments in public spaces such as government buildings, office buildings and restaurants.

Regulation of Smoking:

Due to mounting facts of health risks, television advertisements for cigarettes are increasingly being banned and governments world over are advising for stronger warning labels on all print advertising. It is now the responsibility of The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, a treaty adopted by World Health Organization members in 2003, to establish international standards for anti smoking measures once it is ratified. This convention creates precincts on the marketing/sales of tobacco products.

What happens when you quit smoking? What to expect when i stop smoking?

Short term effects when you quit smoking are:

  • Your blood pressure will become normal within only 20 minutes if you quit smoking right now.
  • The oxygen levels of your blood will return to normal within 8 hours.
  • Your sense of smell will return to normal within 2 days.
  • Your chances of having heart attack will also reduce in the same amount of time.
  • Nicotine level from blood will decrease remarkably in the same period.
  • Within 2 to 8 weeks circulation in the body will increase.

Long term effects when you quit smoking:

  • Within 9 months your lung capacity will improve by 10% due to which breathing related problems will dissipate.
  • The risk of heart attack due to smoking will reduce to half within 1 year.
  • The risk of heart stroke which might have caused due to your smoking habbit will reduce to non within 5 years.
  • The risk of lung cancer will become like a person who has never smoked within 10 years.
  • The risk of heart attack which might have been induced by your smoking habbit will become nil within 15 years.

Above all quitting smoke will give big boost to your morale and feeling of achievement. YES, I thought, I tried and I achieved it what millions have tried and failed.

What are the side effects when you quit smoking?

Once you decide and suddenly quit smoking the body is in kind of a state of loss. Your body is confused and doesn’t know how to work normally as it was unable to work normally since long. The common side effects when you quit smoking are:

  • Blood sugar might go down
  • headache
  • insomnia
  • irritation
  • drowsiness
  • cough
  • weight gain
  • ubiquitous sweet tooth

There is no need to worry for the above problems since they are temporary and should vanish within 3-5 days.

What is Virus?

A program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes. Viruses can also replicate themselves. All computer viruses are man made. A simple virus that can make a copy of itself over and over again is relatively easy to produce. Even such a simple virus is dangerous because it will quickly use all available memory and bring the system to a halt. An even more dangerous type of virus is one capable of transmitting itself across networks and bypassing security systems.

Since 1987, when a virus infected ARPANET, a large network used by the Defense Department and many universities, many antivirus programs have become available. These programs periodically check your computer system for the best-known types of viruses.

Some people distinguish between general viruses and worms. A worm is a special type of virus that can replicate itself and use memory, but cannot attach itself to other programs.

Spaniards crush hapless Russians

INNSBRUCK: Spain fired a warning shot to their Euro 2008 title rivals with a stunning dissection of Russia here yesterday, winning their Group D clash 4-1.

Valencia striker David Villa was the hat-trick hero but it was Spain's general incisive play that formed the base of this hugely impressive victory.

Russia, coached by Dutchman Guus Hiddink, did not play badly -- they had a lot of the ball and created chances -- but Spain were ruthless.

Russia created the first clear chance as captain Sergei Semak played in the overlapping right-back Alexsandr Anyukov and his pull back found Igor Semshov but the Dinamo Moscow man shot tamely wide.

Russia were made to pay on 20 minutes as Fernando Torres latched onto a long through ball from Joan Capdevila, turned his marker Denis Kolodin, drew goalkeeper Igor Akinfeev and slipped the ball inside for Villa to slot into an empty net.
It was stunning vision from Capdevila who cut out a Russian pass and launched a 60-metre counter-attack in one movement but Kolodin should have stopped Torres having got a touch as he was turned, only to clumsily give the ball straight back to the Liverpool forward.

Russia reacted well as Konstantin Zyryanov hit the post with a shot from 12 yards following confusion in the Spanish box.

On 27 minutes a great move from Spain almost resulted in another goal as Andres Iniesta played in Villa, who forced Akinfeev into a smart near-post save.

But on the stroke of half-time the same pair combined to give Spain a 2-0 lead, Iniesta brilliantly picking out Villa's run before the Valencia marksmen squeezed the ball between Akinfeev's legs.



Spain coach Luis Aragones brought off Torres for Arsenal midfielder Cesc Fabregas to try to close up the middle of the park after the break.



With 15 minutes left, Fabregas threaded a through ball to Villa and the diminutive striker turned inside his marker before wrong-footing Akinfeev.

Russia were restricted to taking long range pot shots, although Pavlyuchenko did score a consolation goal with a close range header four minutes from time as Spain went to sleep at a corner but another rapier counter attack saw Fabregas head home after Xavi's volley was blocked. -- AFP

Last eight place up for grabs in Czech-Portugal clash

Portugal coach Luiz Felipe Scolari says his side will be confident - but not too confident - when they face the Czech Republic on Wednesday with a Euro 2008 quarter-final place at stake.
Euro 2004 finalists Portugal were impressive on Saturday night when they sealed a 2-0 win over Turkey at the Stade de Geneva to top Group A, while the Czechs also opened with a 1-0 win over Switzerland in Basel.
Portugal's Pepe and Raul Meireles scored second-half goals in Geneva to see off Turkey and Scolari's side look destined for the knock-out phase.
But Czech substitute Vaclav Sverkos gave his side a winning start with a second-half strike that broke Switzerland after some dogged resistance.

A win for either side here would put them in the last eight, with Scolari saying he expects a touch examination from the Czech team and will be doing his homework.

"We'll be confident (against the Czech Republic) but not too confident," said Scolari, otherwise known as 'Big Phil' and apparently in the running for the vacancy at Chelsea.

"We'll watch videos of the Czechs - they play in a different way to Turkey, let's see if we can keep it up and keep playing this beautiful football as that way we'll go through to the second round.

"We are halfway on the road to qualifying. If we get six points we should qualify, so 50 percent after one match is excellent. It gives us some breathing space."

His experienced midfielder Deco was also denying that one impressive victory had set them on their destiny of winning the title.

"We do not risk falling into the trap of being too complacent," said Deco, who has like several of his fellow Barcelona squad members put in transfer requests following a disappointing season.

"We are not underestimating the Czech Republic, quite the contrary, we have a lot of respect for them. It will be a bit more difficult than against Turkey.

"The fact the Czechs had problems against the Swiss means nothing."

Deco said that there had been no over-the-top celebrating by the Portuguese following their opening victory.

"We avoided celebrating euphorically because nothing has been achieved yet," added Deco, who was part of the Portuguese squads that reached the Euro 2004 final and the 2006 World Cup semi-finals.

The Czechs veteran coach Karel Bruckner insisted standards must be raised ahead of Portugal as his side looked a bit bereft of creative ideas and sorely missed the injured playmaker and captain Tomas Rosicky.

He said: "We have to analyse our last game, because we weren't faultless and there are things to work on.

"Our next game will also be very difficult."

Bruckner brought Sverkos off the bench as their lone forward against the Swiss in place of towering Nuremberg stiker Jan Koller and the move paid off with Sverkos hitting the winner.

"I don't believe I can replace a player like Jan Koller, maybe no one can," Sverkos said of Koller who will retire from the national side after the finals.

"If we stick to the current system, it's very important for the team that Jan plays.

"He works very hard for us, especially closing down defenders. He's a unique player in terms of bringing the ball down and playing it on the ground. I believe there is no player like him, not in our team, not in any team. He's unique."

Friday, 6 June 2008

‘.my’ identiti rakyat Malaysia

PENTADBIR tunggal nama domain peringkat negara, MYNIC memperkenalkan alamat laman web Malaysia yang berakhir dengan ‘.my’ iaitu singkatan yang mewakili negara Malaysia.

Pembukaan tawaran umum pendaftaran nama domain itu bermula pada Mac 2008.

Pengarah MYNIC Berhad, Shariya Haniz Zulkifli, berkata nama domain peringkat kedua (2LD) yang diperkenalkan ini tidak tertakluk kepada mana-mana kategori seperti .org.my atau net.my .

“Nama domain peringkat kedua ini memberi peluang kepada semua lapisan masyarakat untuk mendapatkan identiti Internet yang tersendiri. Nama domain yang ringkas dan mudah diingati bersama singkatan .my menyerlahkan identiti unik Malaysia kepada komuniti global Internet.

"Internet kini menjadi tumpuan utama masyarakat di Malaysia. Oleh itu, penggunaan identiti Internet menjadi fungsi penjenamaan atau 'online branding' untuk pelaburan jangka masa panjang", katanya lagi.

Menteri Sains, Teknologi dan Inovasi, Datuk Dr Maximus Ongkili, berkata pendaftar nama domain .my berpeluang membawa jenama dan identiti Malaysia ke pasaran dunia.

"Pencarian di Internet mengenai sejarah, ekonomi, produk serta perkhidmatan negara di Malaysia akan menjadi lebih mudah dan cepat dengan menggunakan singkatan .my yang tidak berkategori.

"Malaysia berjaya menyertai negara lain di rantau Asia Pasifik yang turut mempunyai nama domain peringkat kedua ini. Kejayaan ini meletakkan negara setara dengan kemajuan teknologi di rantau itu", katanya.

Permohonan nama domain .my ini dikendalikan oleh agen rasmi MYNIC. Caj perkhidmatan dikenakan sebanyak RM120 setahun. Maklumat lanjut boleh dilayari di www.mynic.net.my

Menurut statistik yang baru diterima, pendaftaran domain peringkat kedua meningkat 10,000. Sembilan puluh peratus daripadanya adalah organisasi dan korporat manakala 10 peratus lagi milik individu.

Organisasi yang mendaftar domain peringkat kedua, antaranya, maybank.my, petronas.my, microsoft.my dan nokia.my .

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